College offers new experiences and challenges. This can be exciting, but it can also be stressful and make you feel sad. When "the blues" last for weeks or interfere with school work or social life, it might be clinical depression.
Clinical depression is a common, frequently unrecognized illness that can be effectively treated.
What is Clinical Depression? Clinical depression can affect your body, mood, thoughts, and behavior. It can change your eating habits, how you feel and think about things, your ability to work and study, and how you interact with people.
Clinical depression is not a passing mood, a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be willed away. Clinically depressed people cannot "pull themselves together" and get better.
Depression can be successfully treated by a mental health professional or certain health care providers. With the right treatment, 80 percent of those who seek help get better. And many people begin to feel better in just a few weeks.
Types of Depressive Illness Depressive illnesses come in different forms. The following are general descriptions of the three most prevalent, though for an individual, the number, severity, and duration of symptoms will vary.
Major depression is manifested by a combination of symptoms that interfere with your ability to work, sleep, eat, and enjoy once pleasurable activities. These impairing episodes of depression can occur once, twice, or several times in a lifetime.
Symptoms of Major Depression
A less intense type of depression, dysthymia, involves long-term, chronic symptoms that are less severe, but keep you from functioning at your full ability and from feeling well.
In bipolar illness (also known as manic-depressive illness), cycles of depression alternate with cycles of elation and increased activity, known as mania.
How to Recognize Depression The first step in defeating depression is recognizing it. It's normal to have some signs of depression some of the time. But five or more symptoms for two weeks or longer, or noticeable changes in usual functioning, are all factors that should be evaluated by a health or mental health professional. Remember that people who are depressed may not be thinking clearly and might need to get help.
I kept asking myself, "How could I be depressed? I'd had a normal family life, had been getting good grades, and hadn't experienced any big trauma - where did my depression come from?" - John
What Causes Depression? The causes of depression are complex. Very often a combination of genetic, psychological and environmental factors is involved in the onset of clinical depression. At times, however, depression occurs for no apparent reason. Regardless of the cause, depression is almost always treatable.
Family HistoryDepression often runs in families, which usually means that some, but not all, family members have a tendency to develop the illness. On the other hand, sometimes people who have no family history also develop depression.
StressPsychological and environmental stressors can contribute to a depressive episode, though individuals react differently to life events and experiences.
In coping with stress, some people find writing in a journal, exercising, or talking with friends helpful. But in clinical depression you need some form of treatment (usually medication and/or short-term psychotherapy) to start feeling better soon.
College and Stress Common stressors in college life include:
Psychological make-up can also play a role in vulnerability to depression. People who have low self-esteem, who consistently view themselves and the world with pessimism, or are readily overwhelmed by stress may be especially prone to depression.
Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression) As mentioned earlier, bipolar disorder is a type of depressive illness that involves mood swings that go from periods of depression to periods of being overly "up" and irritable.
Sometimes, the mood swings are dramatic or rapid, but most often they occur gradually, over several weeks. The "up" or manic phase can include increased energy and activity, insomnia, grandiose notions and impulsive or reckless behavior, including sexual promiscuity.
Medication usually is effective in controlling manic symptoms and preventing the recurrence of both manic and depressive episodes.
Suicide Thoughts of death or suicide are usually signs of severe depression.
"If you're feeling like you can't cope anymore, or that life isn't worth living, get help," advised Darrel, a student who tried to kill himself during his freshman year. "Talking to a professional can get you past those intense feelings and save your life."
Suicidal feelings, thoughts, impulses, or behaviors always should be taken seriously. If you are thinking about hurting or killing yourself, SEEK HELP IMMEDIATELY.
Contact someone you trust to help you: a good friend, academic advisor, or R.A., or:
If someone you know has thoughts about suicide, the best thing to do is help him or her get professional help.
Depression and Alcohol/Drugs A lot of depressed people, especially teenagers, also have problems with alcohol or other drugs. Alcohol is a drug, too.
Sometimes, the depression comes first and people try drugs as a way to escape it. In the long run, drugs or alcohol just make things worse!
Other times, the alcohol or other drug use comes first, and depression is caused by the drug itself, withdrawal from it, or the problems that substance use causes.
And sometimes you can't tell which came first. The important point is that when you have both of these problems, the sooner you get treatment, the better.
Getting Help - Treatment Works If you think you might be depressed, discuss this with a qualified health-care or mental-health professional who can evaluate your concerns. Bring along an understanding friend for support if you are hesitant or anxious about the appointment.
Several effective treatments for depression are available and can provide relief from symptoms in just a few weeks. The most commonly used treatments are psychotherapy, antidepressant medication, or a combination of the two.
Taking the First Step
"I knew I was depressed but thought I could pull out of it by myself. Unfortunately, friends reinforced this attitude by telling me to just toughen up. When that didn't work, I felt even worse, because I had 'failed' again.
"When a friend suggested I talk to his counselor, I resisted at first. In my mind, professional help was for weak, messed up people. But then, I hit a bottom so low that I was willing to try anything." - John
"I decided to try treatment when my friends got fed up with me. They didn't want to talk about my problems any more, but my problems were the major focus of my life. I needed someone who could help me understand what was happening to me. I'd seen ads for the counseling center and decided to give it a try. - Kim
"When I began considering suicide, I knew I needed serious help. My resident advisor helped me call a local hotline where I got some good referrals. It was just a phone call, but it was the starting point that got me to the professional help I needed." - Leah
Help Yourself: Be an Informed Consumer Don't give in to negative thinking. Depression can make you feel exhausted, worthless, helpless and hopeless, making some people want to give up. Remember, these negative views are part of the depression, and will fade as treatment takes effect.
Take an active role in getting better. Make the most of the help available by being actively involved in your treatment and by working with a qualified therapist or doctor. When in treatment, don't hesitate to ask questions in order to understand your illness and the way treatment works. If you don't start feeling better in a few weeks, discuss new approaches.
Be good to yourself while you're getting well. Along with professional help, there are some other simple things you can do to help yourself get better: participating in a support group, spending time with other people, or taking part in activities, exercise, or hobbies.
Just don't overdo it and don't set big goals for yourself. The health care professional you are seeing may suggest useful books to read and other self-help strategies.
Helping a Depressed Friend The best thing you can do for a depressed friend is to help him or her get treatment. This may involve encouraging the person to seek professional help or to stay in treatment once it is begun. The next best thing is to offer emotional support.
This involves understanding, patience, affection, and encouragement. Engage the depressed person in conversation or activities and be gently insistent if you meet with resistance. Remind that person that with time and help, he or she will feel better.
Finding Affordable Treatment People are sometimes reluctant to seek help because they are concerned about the cost of treatment. Cabrini College offers free and confidential counseling to students. Another option is to call your health-insurance company to find out about your mental-health benefits.
Also, some agencies offer a sliding-scale fee depending on how much you can pay. The counseling center can assist you with referrals if necessary.
If you or someone you know is suffering from symptoms of depression, you can reach counseling services at 610-902-8561 or stop by the office. Counseling and Psychological Services is located in Founder's Hall, Room 95.